That is unfortunate. Did it give any error when you tried to boot? You are trying to boot from bios boot menu or via GRUB or somesuch?
First I would check that the partitions are in order, do you have any other than BATOCERA and SHARE on the harddrive? If they are not nr 1 and nr2 check that they are in the same order with the other partitions. Next I would check the old and the new drive if they have MBR or GPT. Make sure that the new one is the same as the old one, otherwise it will look different in the bios boot menu.
If all else fails, try and download the boot.tar.xz and extract its content in the BATOCERA share. Remove first all the old stuff and then extract the new.
https://updates.batocera.org/x86_64/stable/last/ for the boot.tar.xz file